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“Our master research program on Climate Change and Human Security aims at identifying resilience and adaptation capacity to preserve human security”

Pipeline actions require concrete support from all stakeholders.

 The Climate debates are led toward environmental protections and preservation actions since there is more and more awareness on the changing world climate. Today the question of awareness of climate change as the number one priority comes to the fore when leaders of all economic sectors are sensitized. The sensitization should go beyond the simple fact of seeking the cause of growing natural hazards. Reactions of the moments include concrete behavior to facing threats of the climate to humanity’s global security. It is obvious if according to published reports, several peer reviewed journals, and the current warming trend is significant for two reasons that it is “very likely human-induced” and “proceeding at a rate that is unprecedented in the past 1,300 years. ” Decision-making behavior related to climate change adaptation and mitigation in West Africa has now reached policy makers, ministries, world environment agencies. Pipeline actions requires concrete support from all stakeholders.

How do we move Awareness into Actions?

An Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change acknowledged by experts as the scientific authority on climate change in a major report that it is unequivocal that the climate is warming and it is 95% likely that human behavior caused that. The report, released in September 2013, was a “culmination of over five years of research assessment by hundreds of scientists, and contained the work of over 1000 peer-reviewed-published research reports”. The actions to be taken as responsibility toward mitigation of the effect of climate change are on the individual as well as the collective level. Awareness can serve on a smaller scale like on country level. For instance in Togo, it starts by making sure that we are driving an emission tested car, we use solar energy to light and heat our home and turn off electronics appliances when not in use. Recycling and using less water can also help. Businesses can streamline the electricity consumed in offices and incentivize employees to carpool or consume less energy in their transportation to and fro. Nevertheless individual actions taken as such prove insufficient against flooding and other climate hazards while causing human security distress. Climate change Mitigation actions encompass the global world.

 Human Security as key component to training climate change experts

Over a decade now the country has to tackle this “super wicked problem”; That’s the way many of the students in the Master Research Program on Climate Change and Human Security have come to characterize climate change, and it is not because they have a fondness for the new English language slang. For them, a wicked problem is one that is so complex, with so many different causes and stakeholders, that it is all but impossible to be solved completely just within a fixed period of time. However, agriculture is the first sector to suffer from climate hazards. The sector of economy is another sector which suffer from bad consequences of the changing climate. Extreme climate events with respect to public health in the region are part of human security concerns. The Human security aspect in a changing climate encompasses issues of weather, climate and human health; climate, ecosystems and infectious diseases relations; climate and airborne diseases relations; temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of climate related diseases; health effects of heat and cold waves; impact of wind, storm and floods disasters on health; link between drought, nutrition, food crisis and health; water availability, quality and disease occurrence; health outcome of air quality modified by climate change; health impacts of increased ultraviolet radiation; weather, climate and animal pests and diseases; and human thermal comfort.

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale.

Climate change affects agriculture in a number of ways, including through changes in average temperatures, rainfall, and climate extremes; changes in pests and diseases; changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground-level ozone concentrations; changes in the nutritional quality of some foods; and changes in sea level. The conclusions and remarks of the mrp&cchs second promotion are vibrant:

Climate change is already affecting agriculture, with effects spread unevenly and distributed across the country. Future climate change will likely negatively affect crop production in low latitude countries, while effects in northern latitudes may be positive or negative according to Climate experts. Climate change will probably increase the risk of food insecurity for some vulnerable groups, such as the poor and rural communities in Togo. Equally, Agriculture contributes to climate change by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), and by the conversion of non-agricultural land like forests into arable land. Agriculture, forestry and land-use change contributed around 20 to 25% to global annual emissions in 2010.

MRP&CCHS – Solving the problem through crop development models

Models for climate behavior are frequently inconclusive. In order to further study effects of global warming on agriculture, MRP CCHS students curricula suggest that crop development models, yield prediction, quantities of water or fertilizer consumed, can be used. Such models condense the knowledge accumulated of the climate, soil, and effects observed of the results of various agricultural practices. They thus could make it possible to test strategies of adaptation to modifications of the environment. Because these models are necessarily simplifying natural conditions often based on the assumption that weeds, disease and insect pests are controlled. Other models, such as insect and disease development models based on climate projections are also available to be used.

Scenarios are used in order to estimate climate changes effects on crop development and yield. The master research syllabus in Togo lay a lot of emphasis on the adaptation models. It is clear that in the face of already changing climate no other remedy works more effectively that the measures to adapt. Affected community ought to adapt and develop resilience in each disaster scenario.

Each scenario is defined as a set of meteorological variables, based on generally accepted projections. For example, many models are running simulations based on doubled carbon dioxide projections, temperatures raise ranging from 1 °C up to 5 °C, and with rainfall levels an increase or decrease of 20%. Other parameters may include humidity, wind, and solar activity. Scenarios of crop models are testing farm-level adaptation, such as sowing date shift, climate adapted species, irrigation and fertilizer adaptation, resistance to disease. Most developed models are about wheat, maize, rice and soybean. Let’s keep on taking actions by teaching these adaptation measures.