Aknowledgment : Alumni Alberta ARYEE and lecturer Julia KLOOS worked on the the topic «INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND RESILIENCE TO RIVER FLOOD IN WEST AFRICA». This Work is published as first chapter of the book titled : “ADVANCING CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH IN WEST AFRICA: Trends, Impacts, Vulnerability, Resilience, Adaptation and Sustainability Issues” :
The book is available as the complementary contributor copy
On Tuesday 6th November 2018, WASCAL hosted a Green Entrepreneurship Forum in the University of Lomé.
The event took place in the WASCAL lecture Hall in the presence of forty (40) participants including Professor Kokou Kouami, Director of National Institute of Scientific Research and Director of WASCAL Programme in Togo.
Under the theme: “Green Entrepreneurship, engine of my sustainable economic growth” SNEV was organized by OOADD and AJSE and aims at promoting green entrepreneurship in the country to increase the visibility of eco-entrepreneurs and educate young people about green jobs opportunities.
The National Green Entrepreneurship Week (SNEV) started with the Green Entrepreneurship Forum; this first edition in Togo involved the Alumni of the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use, Mr. BAGBOHOUNA M’koumfida. The Director in his address to the youth encourage them to develop new ideas and projects in the sector of green entrepreneurship for a better sustainable future.
In his opening address, Mr. Mandela DJAHO, President of Observatoire Ouest Africain du Développement Durable (OOADD) highlighted that the event is being organized on the eve of the climate conference of the parties. He focused the issues of unemployment and climate change and stressed on the role of the youth in the fight against the daunting effects of climate change in order to save the planet for future generations.
Several topics were discussed at the forum including: the State of Green Entrepreneurship in Togo; the mechanism for financing green projects by the FAIEJ; and the contributions identified at the national level. In addition, a project was presented on young people economic initiatives support for the sectors’ development by one of the young green entrepreneur, Mr. AKAKPO Lado.
The National Green Entrepreneurship Week will be the platform for several activities such as sensitization conferences in the universities in the country, field trips, and radio broadcasts.
On Friday19th October 2018 at 14 h 30 min, WASCAL Programme in Togo organized a restitution meeting of a Project on « Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA). Under the patronage of the EMbassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in TTogo, the Director of WASCAL Togo, Professor Kokou Kouami Hosted the Project’ stakeholders in the premises of the programme at the Université de Lomé.
The “Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) is a Project funded by the European Union. It aims to quantify the influence of anthropogenic and natural emissions on the atmospheric composition in West African countries and evaluate their impact on human health and ecosystems as well as regional meteorology.
Earlier in June and July 2016 an international consortium of sixteen (16) participants from two (2) countries in West Africa and four (4) European countries join efforts to conduct a large-scale field campaign around five (5) developing countries in West Africa. These countries include : Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria.
Togo played a very important role during the field data collection campaign, including the accommodation of three (3) research aircraft (one French, one German and one British) at the Lomé military airport as well as the operating center established at Omono Hotel in Lomé. In addition, researchers and operators involved in the DACCIWA Project worked closely with academic and operational actors (Meteorological Services, Air Control – ASECNA). The methodology of the first results are described in the following publication: https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0256.1
About two years after the campaign, DACCIWA Project stakeholders have proceeded to the communication and dissemination of scientific findings of their Project for the benefit of interested parties including government authorities, universities, meteorological services and commercial services. The Project conclusions focused on the following topics:
Concentrations of pollutants in urban areas and their effects on health;
Sources of urban pollution;
Regional pollution and its impacts;
The radiative effects of aerosols and their influence on weather and climate;
The state of the atmosphere in the countries of South-West Africa in the future; and
The shortcomings of current observations and models in the region.Prior to the WASCAL restittution meeting, the stakeholders met with the country’s authorities to present same campain results.
In the wake of the honorary doctorate “Honoris Causa of the University of Lomé” conferred on Mr. Wilfried Kraus, he presented a new program of the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) on renewable energies. Dr Kraus expressed his desire to see Togo play a leading role in this new program. This new cooperation in the field of renewable energies will focus activities around WASCAL by setting up decentralized infrastructures.
To honor BMBF commitment, a delegation of three German experts arrived in Togo and took part in the first workshop on 13 April 2018 at the Sancta Maria Hotel. Participants assessed challenges facing the sector of renewable energies in the country during this workshop.
During the workshop, the ten (10) main issues expressed by stakeholders and in order of importance in the renewable energies sub-sector are as follows:
1. Political, organizational, institutional and legislative frameworks for the promotion of renewable energies;
1. Mastery of the use of deposits and site characteristics;
2. Lack of economic models;
3. Connection problems, storage and material capabilities;
4. Lack of awareness of the environmental and social impacts of renewable energies;
5. Mastery of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source while the country has a great potential of raw materials (terrestrial and aquatic weeds, garbage and excrements of animals, biodegradable waste from food factories), etc.;
6. Low capacity or lack of competence of actors in the field of renewable energies;
7. Low rural electrification and energy efficiency;
8. lack of a Quality Control / Quality Assurance (QC / QA) system; and
9. maintenance for the promotion of renewable energies, lack of appropriate technology for energy efficiency and difficulties in scaling up the few achievements in the field of renewable energies.
To better understand the various problems expressed by the actors, the workshop suggested the need to carry out a study to assess the renewable energies field in Togo. This study will identify what is already done, in progress or planned at the political, regulatory and operational levels. Ultimately, it will provide BMBF with a base of information necessary for the orientation of its actions.
Equally, the workshop decided to set up a team of experts to conduct the study under consideration. Therefore, on the 24th July 2018, the same actors gathered at Sancta Maria Hotel to launch the feasibility study which will define the guidelines for Renewable Energies Development (ProDER) in Togo.
Entirely dedicated to the feasibility study launching on Renewable Energies Development Program in Togo, this second workshop witnessed the participation of three experts from BMBF, the Executive Director of WASCAL as well as a plethora of actors in the field. The forty-three (43) participants – whose list is appended to this report – came from various backgrounds such as the ministry of education, the civil society and the private sector, among others (see Appendix 1).
The workshop had four phases: (1) Opening session; (2) Presentation of the framework of the conceptual study; (3) Presentation of the feasibility study methodology and the team of experts; and (4) Summary of the discussions and signature of a funding agreement between BMBF and WASCAL.
1. Opening session
The opening ceremony of the workshop was marked by four interventions. First, the participants listened to the welcome address of Dr. Moumini Savadogo, Executive Director of WASCAL; then, it was the turn of H.E.M. Christoph Sander, Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to Togo to deliver his speech, followed by the introductory speech by Dr. Christoph Rövekamp, Head of Energy Division at BMBF.
Finally, the opening address of the workshop is given by Dr. Essohanam Batchana, Associate professor and Director of Research Department of Université de Lomé, representing Professor Komla Dodzi Kokoroko, the President of Université de Lomé. Alternately, these speakers stressed the decisive role and the substantial contribution of renewable energies in the development of a country and insisted on the need to develop them for the well-being of African populations. They welcomed the excellent relations of cooperation between Germany and Togo, with a particular emphasis on WASCAL, through which this renewable project came into being, as a concrete expression of this relationship. The speakers wished good luck and success to the project for a better future for the rural populations who will benefit from it.
The opening phase of the workshop ended with a family photo shoot.
2. Conceptual framework presentation
Under the moderation of Professor Kouami Kokou, Director of WASCAL Togo, the phase devoted to the presentation of the conceptual study exposed participants to an overview of the reasons and principles underlying the study. After recalling the first workshop, drawing up an inventory and giving directions for research on renewable energies in Togo with terms of reference, Professor Kokou clearly underlined the general and specific objectives of the feasibility study. He presented the expected objectives, delineated the tasks and terms of reference of the consultants and specified the time required to submit the deliverables of the study – 45 days. A series of questions and answers and other contributions as well as points of clarification ended this first presentation.
Professor Kokou then invited Dr. Jérémie K. Fontodji, biomass energy specialist and member of the consultants’ team to present the methodology of the feasibility study.
3. Feasibility study’s methodology and leading team of consultants presentation
Speaking on behalf of the team of consultants selected for the feasibility study of the Renewable Energies Development Program in Togo under the pupillage of WASCAL, Dr. Jérémie K. Fontodji presented participants with a “technical offer” detailing their approach to the feasibility study and guidelines for research on Renewable Energies in Togo. Their project reviews the context and mandate of the consultants (defining their mission, the objectives of the study and its results as well as the expected obligations of the consultants). Secondly and most importantly, his presentation emphasized the methodological approach the team will deploy to achieve the expected results.
The methodological approach chosen by the team of consultants is divided into three phases: 1) research and document analysis; 2) field data collection; and 3) the processing, data analysis and reporting of the study. According to the expert, these three phases will allow his team to:
• analyze the evolution of energy consumption in Togo;
• assess the potential of renewable energies in the country;
• carry out a diagnostic analysis of the sub-sector of renewable energies; and
• give clear guidance to BMBF for intervention in the renewable energies sub-sector in Togo.
As for the internal organization of the consultants’ work, Dr. Jérémie K. Fontodji reassured participants that his team has available and qualified personnel as well as appropriate tools and equipment / laboratories to carry out its mission. He marshaled a very detailed chronogram to sustain his assertion: the study will be completed in forty-five (45) working days and will be spread over six (6) months from the signing of the contract. Clearly, the team will cover the following activities within the six (6) months of the study: desk research, development of data collection tools, field data collection, processing and analysis, production of the draft report and its submission to the coordination. Also, the validation workshop of the interim report, the integration of observations, the production of the final report and its submission to the coordination will be carried out within this deadline. In sum, Dr Fontodji has erased all doubts about the ability of the team to conduct the study with mastery and within the timeframe allotted with his supporting chronogram.
Some questions related to the conceptual study were raised during the discussions following his presentation. After a series of questions and answers and other contributions as well as clarification points during a plenary session, all the consultants selected for the study (and whose profile follows) were officially introduced to participants of the workshop – who congratulated them through applause.
Team of consultants in charge of the study
AREA OF EXPERTISE
Jérémie Kokou Fontodji
Research Department for Sustainable Development (BER2D) in partnership with the enterprise BIOMATOGO
It is worth stressing that Professor Kokou, Director of WASCAL Togo, is the coordinator of the Consultants’ team.
The presentation of the team of consultants put an end to this phase to leave room for CIREG Project communication, a renewable energies project managed by WASCAL Competence Centre. In presenting the communication on the CIREG Project, Dr. Safietou Sanfo, one of the project’s consultants, informed the audience that the said project covers four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Niger and Togo) and that it seeks to put in place renewable energies pilot projects therein. In order to promote renewable energies, a consortium of Western countries, including Belgium, Germany and Norway, among others, have commissioned a survey on renewable energies, the results of which will enable donors to finance its micro projects in the selected countries to promote its wider use thereafter.
Participants asked clarification questions to understand the ins and outs of this project, which seems to be a duplication of what the Lomé workshop undertakes. They suggested the need for synergy between both projects with the Competence Center.
Summary of discussions and funding agreement signing between BMBF and WASCAL
The last phase of the workshop is devoted to a summary of the discussions and the signing of a funding agreement between BMBF and WASCAL in order to carry out the feasibility study of the Renewable Energies Development Program in Togo.
The execution of the first part of this section is a summary of the discussions held during the day. In order to draw conclusions from the various discussions on renewable energies that were conducted during the day, the workshop reviewed key points for recommendations. Conducted under the moderation of Mr. Julien Adounkpé, Associate professor and Director of WASCAL Benin, these discussions generated the following recommendations, among others:
Integrate a fourth phase into the feasibility study: the validation phase;
Use the Competence Center if information on climate variables is needed;
Take into account all regions of Togo during the study;
Include the rural environment in sampling;
Obtain household consent on the price to pay for renewable energies;
Consider the issue of projects’ sustainability;
Consider the integration of high winds into the methodology for the specific case of wind energy;
Schedule a study to update the standard power generation sites;
Consider biofuel; and
Train users for the maintenance and repair of renewable energies products to sustain them.
The second part of this phase is dedicated to the signing of a funding agreement between BMBF and WASCAL for the feasibility study. Under the terms of the agreement, the German Ministry of Education, represented by Dr Christoph Rövekamp, Chief Energy Division, on the one hand, and WASCAL Togo, represented by its director, Professor Kouami Kokou, on the other hand, signed the agreement. A grant agreement for a total amount of two hundred thousand Euros (€ 200,000) for the feasibility study of the Renewable Energies Development Program in Togo had been signed.
Under the terms of this agreement signed on 24th July 2018, the disbursement of funds will be effective as of 1st August 2018 to begin the feasibility study which results aim at contributing to the development of a sustainable energy system in Togo. This signature brought the workshop to closure at 4 pm with the vote of thanks of Professor Kokou.
The 24th July 2018 workshop marks the starting point of a feasibility study aimed at assessing Togo’s potential for renewable energies and promoting its development in the country. Once completed, this study will pave the way for a project to popularize the use of renewable energies.
The team of experts is committed to travelling around Togo in the next six months to describe the evolution of energy demand in a context of climate change in Togo, to carrying out an integrated assessment of renewable energies potential in the country, to carrying out a diagnostic analysis of the renewable energies sub-sector and propose guidelines for BMBF intervention in the renewable energies sub-sector aiming at putting in place of a pilot project. At the end of the study, experts will give clear guidelines for the start of a project which will be carried out by the German Ministry of Education – BMBF – in coordination with WASCAL Togo.
It is important to note that the study begins on 1st August 2018; the submission of its first draft report is scheduled for 1st December 2018, while the delivery of the final report is envisaged for 30th January 2019. The project will be presented to the Minister in February 2019; the decision to launch the pilot project is equally expected in February 2019. In sum, the final workshop is anticipated for March 2019.
Theme:Empowering the young woman through green entrepreneurship
As part of its program to promote green entrepreneurship, the West African Observatory for Sustainable Development (OOADD) launched in February 2018, an online mapping of green entrepreneurs in Togo. The results of this mapping showed a relatively low representation of women in the sector. However, it is clear that the sector is full of important opportunities that remain unexploited to date. Faced with this situation, it is urgent to bring to young women’s knowledge, these opportunities to arouse in them the desire to invest. In this context, OOADD in collaboration with WASCAL Program on Climate Change and Human Security in Togo and the organizations working on gender and development issues, namely Youth Impact for Sustainable Development (YISD) and the International Association Young Women Leaders (AIJFL) organized a Young Women’s Academy on Green Entrepreneurship. This academy which will take place over the period from June to September 2018 is themed “Empowerment of young women through green entrepreneurship“. It will equip 200 women on green entrepreneurship and is organized as a prelude to the celebration of the first edition of the National Green Entrepreneurship Week in Togo. The activity is part of the implementation of Goals 5, 8, 10, 13 and 15 of sustainable development. Thus the first session of the academy was organized on Thursday, June 28, 2018 at the headquarters of WASCAL at the University of Lomé (UL).
It was marked by the words of welcome by Professor Kouami KOKOU, Director of WASCAL, the words of circumstance of Mr. Tata Y. ATTI, President of Youth Impact for Sustainable Development and the opening speech of Mr. Mandela DJAHO, President of the West African Observatory of Sustainable Development.
In his intervention, Professor KOKOU welcomed the organizers and participants at the WASCAL premises hosting the event. He congratulated the initiative and encouraged the organizers in their actions in favor of the environment through green entrepreneurship. He reiterated the availability of WASCAL to support such initiatives.
In his speech, Mr. Tata ATTI clarified the essential place that young women must play in the fight against climate change and located the event in an international context related to the adoption of the SDGs.
Mr. DJAHO Mandela, for his part, thanked Professor KOKOU for accepting hosting the event on his premises. He outlined OOADD’s actions in promoting green entrepreneurship in Togo and invited participants to pay particular attention to various communications.
After the opening ceremony, the moderator of the workshop, Mrs. Alice GOZA, President of the International Association of Women and Young Leaders (AIFJL) invited the participants to take a family photo and then the communications began.
The first communication focused on climate change and opportunities for green entrepreneurship. It was made by Mr. M’koumfida BAGBOHOUNA, a WASCAL Alumnus. In his presentation, he defined climate change and identified its causes, manifestations, consequences and solutions to the phenomenon. He concluded his presentation by sharing the opportunities for green entrepreneurship with the participants.
The second communication was made by Mr. Biao AFFO, Secretary General of the West African Observatory of Sustainable Development and focused on green entrepreneurship and opportunities related to Togo. In his delivery, he returned to the context of green entrepreneurship and its importance in the fight against global warming. He gave some examples of green enterprises in Togo and some women entrepreneurs from other countries.
Ms. TOUTOU’s third communication from the FAIEJ (Support Fund for Youth Economic Initiatives) focused on the project funding mechanism by this institution. She defined the FAIEJ and gave her attributions. She has specified the areas of intervention as well as the various services offered by the fund. She also clarified the intervention strategies as well as the partners of the FAIEJ. She finished her presentation by zooming in on some green projects that benefited from the support of FAIEJ.
Alice GOZA then presented her communication on women’s leadership and green entrepreneurship. In her communication, she clarified the qualities of a female leader and motivated the participants to more dynamism in society. She gave examples of some women leaders by making a link on what characterizes them all. She went back to the need for women to assert themselves in society and to claim their place in the development process of their country.
The last communication was made by Mr. ATTI who made the link between the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and green entrepreneurship. In his presentation, he set the context for the adoption of the SDGs and focused on targets related to green entrepreneurship.
At the end of the presentations, a panel of all presenters was formed. The participants had the opportunity to ask questions of deepening to better master the concept of green entrepreneurship but also several questions about the funding mechanism of FAIEJ. The young ladies were invited to visit the FAIEJ to register. They were also invited to do a lot of research in order to better understand the concept of green entrepreneurship in order to identify ideas in the sector.
At the end of the discussions, Mr. Mandela DJAHO thanked the organizers and the participants for this first session. He said that additional training will be done to better equip participants in the creation and management of their green businesses.
As part of a pilot project for rolling out new research activities in the field of Renewable Energies in the West Africa Sub-Region with the ultimate goal of finding a headway in solving the energy deficiency problems that are faced by countries in the West Africa Sub-Region, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL) and the University of Lomé organized a regional Stakeholders Consultation Workshop on Friday April 13th 2018 in Lomé, Togo.
The workshop was the first step in assessing research priorities in Renewable Energies for West African Countries.
Consequently, it aims at (i) sharing the main achievements and challenges in this area of Research (ii) analyze and validate the methods to be used and (iii) agree on procedures for its implementation with the participation of national and regional stakeholders who are experts in the field of Renewable Energies within the West African landscape.
The regional workshop centred as well on the advantages of the Bio energy as it involved the utilization of none-used organic waste and agricultural residues, the Reduction of emissions (e.g. instead of open combustion), the reduction of landfills, the provision of clean energy (especially in remote areas), the provision of fertilizer, the broad range of applications (power, fuel, heat, cold), the flexible or base-load energy provision, the storage capacities for solar and wind energy (e.g. methanisation), the local employment and fostering local development
additional income for biomass producers (selling their residues).
The workshop was commissioned by the first Vice President of the University of Lome, Prof Komlan Batawila. Mrs. Judith Wilke, representative of the Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Executive Director of WASCAL, the Directors of WASCAL doctorate programmes of Benin and Niger.
About forty stakeholders working in the renewable energy sector in Togo took part of the event.
It is worth recalling that this is a first of a series of actions toward renewable energy industry development in Togo and in West Africa countries in general.
MRP-CCHS Programme is honored and pleased to bid farewell to the graduates of its third promotion.
The Director and Staff of the Master Research Programme on Climate Change and Human Security bid farewell to the graduates particularly after a successful completion of their two year master degree course at WASCAL.
Indeed, the students completed this part of journey with great achievements and beautiful memories. As they will now prepare for a greater challenge ahead, let’s recollect that WASCAL nurture them so as to build a strong foundation for their next level. Under the sponsorship of BMBF, these young West Africans have attained this impressive milestone in their life with great honor; they are skilled and dedicated to contribute to building the next generation of scientists and policy makers in climate- related issues in West Africa.
For the uncommon zeal demonstrated in their studies, the relationship with one another, the intercultural relationship and knowledge exchange, all the ten graduates have acquired cogent knowledge in climate change as it affects human security. These young scientists in climate change are now skilled to help develop mitigation policies and raise awareness within communities in West Africa toward the wicked problem.
To bid them farewell, the graduates expressed their wish to gather at the Director’s home. Therefore, the Director entertained them in a farewell celebration in the wake of their beautiful graduation ceremony held on 9th February at the University of Lomé. Dressed in the attire of memorable events, the graduates appreciated the Director’s mentorship during their stay in Togo. They thanked him for his leadership and inspirational thoughts toward them.
At the end of the celebration, the Director wished that all of them further their studies so that the WASCAL Programme can be highly recognized in the West African Sub-region in particular through them.